Manufacturing Modernism

The White Peril and L’Art Negre: Picasso, Primitivism, and Anti-colonialism Patricia Leighten The Art Bulletin December 1990 Volume LXXII Number 4

“An awareness on the part of Picasso and his circle of the colonial exploitation that brought African art into the domain of French culture suggests additional levels of meaning in modernist uses of primitivism . The popular image of Africa in pre World War I France (embraced by modernists as an imagined primal spiritism),the response on the left to French colonial theory , and the inflammatory debates in the press and Chamber of Deputies in 19056 following the revelation s of abuses againsindigenous populations in the French and Belgian Congas, form an inextricable part of the power of an allusion to Africa in the period 1905-9 and reveal that the preference of some modernists for primitivecultures was as much an act of social criticism as a search for a new art.”

Hegel and Haiti Susan Buck-Morss Critical Inquiry Vol26 No4 (Summer, 2000) pp 821-865

“The exploitation of millions of colonial slave laborers was accepted as part of the given world by the very thinkers who proclaimed freedom to be man’s natural state and inalienable right.”

The Production of Space Henri Lefebvre 1974 Blackwell Publisher

The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses Juhani Pallasmaa 2005 Wiley Academy

Juhani Pallasmaa speaks about both architecture and film creating and preserving images of a culture.